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It is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east and the states of Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, and Queensland to the north. The site of the first British settlement in Australia in , New South Wales is today the most populous and, after Victoria, the most industrialized state in the Commonwealth of Australia.


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The colonies of Tasmania , South Australia, Victoria, and Queensland were successively carved out of its territory in the 19th century. The Australian Capital Territory at Canberra was ceded to the Commonwealth government in , and the Jervis Bay enclave on the Pacific coast was similarly ceded in to provide a port for Canberra. Although it is by no means the largest Australian state in area, New South Wales has the largest economy among them and, in its demographic , political, and economic variety, constitutes a microcosm of Australia as a whole.

It reflects the problems of a semiperipheral country adjusting to changes in the world economy. Its formerly robust manufacturing base adjusted to competition from cheaper and better products from overseas, with heavier industries being replaced by the production of elaborately transformed goods. Unemployment levels run relatively high, often above the national average and marked by considerable regional variations.

The expansion of the property, financial, and business sectors accounts for much employment growth from the s onward, and fluctuations in those areas similarly have an impact on the economic trends of the state overall. Rapidly expanding international tourism stimulated extensive development in services, although it has heightened vulnerability to global economic downturns, and the impact of large numbers of tourist arrivals placed strains on facilities and the environment.

Since the turn of the 21st century, the population of New South Wales has grown more slowly relative to most other Australian states, reflecting the dynamics of economic growth across the country.

Such settlement is driven by the greater presence of amenities in those areas, although it is also associated with concern about the degradation of the land resources of the state. As in all the Australian states, the considerable autonomy of the state government under the terms of Australian federation in has been—especially since the s—steadily limited by Commonwealth government control of the collection and expenditure of public moneys.

Some Unique Facts about New South Wales

More recently, there has been pressure to achieve greater levels of national coordination in the provision of health care, education, and the management of environmental resources and to outsource the provision of services once provided by public agencies. Even with those changes, New South Wales—by virtue of its history, diversity , and economy—exerts considerable influence over the culture and prosperity of Australia and over international perceptions of Australian society and identity.

Area , square miles , square km. Population 7,, A narrow coastal strip of fertile river valleys, plains, and granite outcrops is bounded to the north by a series of plateaus stretching from the New England Range , to the west by steep gorges and ascents leading up to the tableland , to the south and west by the central and southern tablelands, and to the south by the Monaro plateau.

To the west of Monaro lie the Snowy Mountains , including the Kosciuszko massif, which rises to 7, feet 2, metres in Mount Kosciuszko , the highest mountain in Australia. The general elevation of the tableland is 2, feet metres , high enough to provide severe winters and snow. Except in the south, the descent to the inland slopes is gentle, providing a zone of undulating land intersected by rivers that have their origins in the tablelands. In the west are the semiarid plains, composed of colluvial material, with bedrock exposed in some areas, as in the Barrier Ranges.

General musters of New South Wales, Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land This book is organised by surname, and includes information about peoples' "status" whether they were free or a convict , ship of arrival, trial and sentence details if applicable and other remarks.

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Convicts and the Colonisation of Australia, | The Digital Panopticon

Also includes: - an excellent history of how and why this census was collected - population statistics for Hobart, New South Wales, Port Dalrymple and Norfolk Island - statistics relating to convict's country of trail - statistics relating to male and female given names. General muster of New South Wales, Musters and convict lists for New South Wales , , , Information listed in these records can include: name of convict, name of ship of arrival, date of arrival, where tried, date of trial, and sentence.

New South Wales, census and population books, Part of Ancestry Library Edition database, which can be accessed at the State Library of Victoria and many local libraries. The AJCP numbers given below are microfilm reel numbers. General muster and land and stock muster of New South Wales General muster list of New South Wales , , This book is arranged alphabetically by surname.

Australia : History

It includes: - status free, convict, born in colony etc - ship - year of arrival - sentence - occupation - employer - remarks Includes some people who died before , and up to Includes an index of occupations, and an index of employers. Also available as a book , and on CD-ROM which contains some additional information extracted from other records , and on microfilm. Organised alphabetically by surname. Includes names, ages, ships of arrival, year of arrival, sentences, religions, occupations, employers, abodes, workplaces and information about whether people were convicts, had been pardoned, assigned to an employer, emancipated etc.

Use Common abbreviations used in musters and censuses to help decipher these records. Note: 'Two copies of this census were created. General return of convicts in New South Wales, Index to census This website indexes names of heads of households recorded on the census. Includes areas which are now part of Victoria and Queensland. Once a reference has been found, the microfilm census householders' returns can be accessed for more information. Some of these microfilms are missing, but are being re-ordered by the library.

In addition to areas of New South Wales, includes areas which are now part of Victoria and Queensland. Use with Index to census listed above. Indexed, complete copy of census also available electronically at the State Library of Victoria and some local libraries, from the Ancestry Library Edition database online copy varies slightly from the microfilm copy. This census includes both information about individuals and collated statistics about age and gender, marital status and gender, civil condition if "free" or not and gender, religion, and occupation.


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The only original records that have survived for the census are the census collectors' books. Only the head of the household is named in these records.

Settlement

The records are 'organised alphabetically by district'. The books also list separately how many of the residents are Chinese or Aboriginal. Additional information may include the type of dwelling. You can access the records using the Ancestry Library Edition database see above , which is available at the State Library and many local libraries.

Additional topics

They are also on microfiche at the Western Sydney Records Centre. The records are 'organised alphabetically by district '. Australian historical population statistics This website contains basic demographic data in Excel spreadsheet format, going back in some cases to Statistics include population size and growth, population distribution, population age-sex structure, births, deaths, migration, marriages and divorces.

These are given for Australia and for each colony where available.

Federation

Colonial statistics: catalogue of Australian statistical publications, Download in PDF format. See New South wales census, listing below for further details. General musters of New South Wales, Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land This book includes: - an excellent history of how and why this census was collected - population statistics for Hobart, New South Wales, Port Dalrymple and Norfolk Island - statistics relating to convict's country of trail - statistics relating to male and female given names.

An abstract from the official general returns of the black natives, taken at the annual distribution of the Government donation of blankets, to each tribe, within the four divisions of the colony, for the years , , Online transcript of Report of the mission to the Aborigines at Lake Macquarie, New South Wales from 30 Dec The numbers recorded in these returns censuses were described in as 'tolerably correct'.