The launches occurred in Antarctica from November 28 through December The Columbia team has launched more than 1, scientific balloons from seven countries in the past 35 years.
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The payloads and instruments will provide critical scientific data in the study of cosmic ray particles and the life cycle of the interstellar medium, which is the matter that fills the space between stars in the galaxy. NASA used its largest zero pressure balloon for the first three flights, which at million-cubic-feet of volume is as large as a football stadium when fully inflated. BACCUS will investigate the density and the chemicals in the environment between stars by studying cosmic ray particles.
It has completed two circumnavigations and is currently on a third leg around the South Pole. ANITA has completed one circumnavigation and was more than halfway through a second circumnavigation as of December The instrument is designed to study the interstellar medium in order to better understand the life cycle of stars.
As they track the ANITA flight path, the Hi-Cal flights measure the reflectivity of the ice by emitting a signal from a suspended radio frequency transmitter. Balloon Element of Recommendation 4: To make full and efficient use of its planned and present launch capability, NASA should provide increased funds for the planning, construction, and assembly of the com plex payloads that make use of its present LDB flight capability, and especially for ULDB payloads when that capability becomes available. Numerical solutions are presented for partially inflated strained balloon shapes with lobes and no aerodynamic loading.
NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon SPB to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed. Flight controllers terminated the COSI flight 43 hours into the mission after detecting a small gas leak in the balloon. Crews are now working to recover all three instruments from different locations across the continent. The Program Office seeks to fly the SPB more than days, which would shatter the current flight duration record of 55 days, 1 hour, and 34 minutes for a large scientific balloon.
Optimum designs for superpressure balloons. The elastica shape is now well known to be the best basic shape for superpressure balloon design. This shape, also known as the pumpkin, or natural shape for balloons , has been well understood since the early s when it was applied to the determination of the shape of descending parachutes.
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The elastica shape was also investigated in the s when high strength films were used to produce superpressure cylinder balloons. The need for uniform stress distribution in shells of early superpressure balloons led to a long period of the development of spherical superpressure balloons. Not until the late s was the elastica shape revisited for the purpose of the producing superpressure balloons. This paper will review various development efforts in the field of superpressure design and will elaborate on the current state-of-the-art with suggestions for future developments.
Scientific Balloons - - Major Reference Works - Wiley Online Library
Overview of the Scientific Balloon Activity in Sweden. SSC, formerly known as Swedish Space Corporation, is a Swedish state-owned company working in several different space related fields, including scientific stratospheric balloon launches. Esrange Space Centre Esrange in short located in the north of Sweden is the launch facility of SSC, where both sounding rocket launches and stratospheric balloon launches are conducted.
At Esrange there are also facilities for satellite communication, including one of the largest civilian satellite data reception stations in the world. Stratospheric balloons have been launched from Esrange since , when the first flights were performed together with the French space agency CNES. These balloon flights have normally flown eastward either only over Sweden or into Finland.
Some flights have also had permission to fly into Russia, as far as the Ural Mountains. Normal flight times are from 4 to 12 hours. These eastward flights are conducted during the winter months September to May. The prevailing westerly wind pattern is very advantageous for trans-Atlantic flights during summer late May to late July. The long flight times are very beneficial for astronomical payloads, such as telescopes that need long observation times.
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In 14 days PoGOLite, which had permission to fly over Russia, made an almost complete circumpolar flight. Typical scientific balloon payload fields include atmospheric research, including research on ozone depletion, astronomical and cosmological research, and research in technical fields such as aerodynamics. Two stratospheric balloons are flown with student. Provides instructions for building a working model of a hot-air balloon , offering suggestions for a successful flight.
Video of the COSI launch
Indicates that children can be involved in the projects, for example, by filling in colors in the panels of a balloon drawing. Telescope Systems for Balloon -Borne Research. The proceedings of a conference on the use of balloons for scientific research are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: 1 astronomical observations with balloon -borne telescopes, 2 orientable, stabilized balloon -borne gondola for around-the-world flights, 3 ultraviolet stellar spectrophotometry from a balloon platform, 4 infrared telescope for balloon -borne infrared astronomy, and 5 stabilization, pointing, and command control of balloon -borne telescopes.
A Methane Balloon Inflation Chamber. The various equipments, procedure and hazards in constructing the device for inflating a methane balloon using a standard methane outlet in a laboratory are described.
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This device is fast, safe, inexpensive, and easy to use as compared to a hydrogen gas cylinder for inflating balloons. Aerodynamics of a Party Balloon. It is well-known that a party balloon can be made to fly erratically across a room, but it can also be used for quantitative measurements of other aspects of aerodynamics. Since a balloon is light and has a large surface area, even relatively weak aerodynamic forces can be readily demonstrated or measured in the classroom. Accurate measurements…. Scientific Balloons for Venus Exploration. Almost 30 years ago, two balloons were successfully deployed into the atmosphere of Venus as an element of the VeGa - Venus Halley mission conducted by the Soviet Union.
As interest in further Venus exploration grows among the established planetary exploration agencies - in Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States, use of balloons is emerging as an essential part of that investigative program. At JPL, the focus for the last decade has been on the development of a 7m diameter superpressure pressure twice that of VeGa capable of carrying a kg payload 14 times that of VeGA balloons , operating for more than 30 days 15 times the 2 day flight duration of the VeGa balloons and transmitting up to 20 Mbit of data times that of VeGa balloons.
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This new generation of balloons must tolerate day night transitions on Venus as well as extended exposure to the sulfuric acid environment. These constant altitude balloons operating at an altitude of about 55 km on Venus where temperatures are benign can also deploy sondes to sound the atmosphere beneath the probe and deliver deep sondes equipped to survive and operate down to the surface. The technology for these balloons is now maturing rapidly and we are now looking forward to the prospects for altitude control balloons that can cycle repeatedly through the Venus cloud region.
One concept, which has been used for tropospheric profiling in Antarctica, is the pumped-helium balloon , with heritage to the anchor balloon , and would be best adapted for flight above the 55 km level. Phase change balloons , which use the atmosphere as a heat engine, can be used to investigate the lower cloud region down to 30 km.
Progress in components for high temperature operation may also enable investigation of the deep atmosphere of Venus with metal-based balloons. Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project. The purpose of the Nationwide Eclipse Ballooning Project is to make the most of the rare eclipse event in four main areas: public engagement, workforce development, partnership development, and science. The Project is focused on two efforts, both student-led: online live video of the eclipse from the edge of space and the study of the atmospheric response to the eclipse.
These efforts, however, involving more than 60 teams across the US, are challenging in many ways. Video and images of a total solar eclipse from near space are fascinating and rare. In addition to the live video to the web, these teams are engaged in several other science experiments as secondary payloads.
We also briefly highlight the eclipse atmospheric science effort, where about a dozen teams will launch over one hundred radiosondes from across the path, recording an unprecedented atmospheric data sample. Collected data will include temperature, density, wind, humidity, and ozone measurements. BETTII uses a double-Fourier Michelson interferometer to simultaneously obtain spatial and spectral information on science targets; the long baseline provides subarcsecond angular resolution, a capability unmatched by other far-infrared facilities.
Here, we present key aspects of the overall design of the mission and provide an overview of the current status of the project. We also discuss briefly the implications of this experiment for future space-based far-infrared interferometers. Stability of Lobed Balloons. This paper presents a computational study of the stability of simple lobed balloon structures.
Two approaches are presented, one based on a wrinkled material model and one based on a variable Poisson s ratio model that eliminates compressive stresses iteratively. The first approach is used to investigate the stability of both a single isotensoid and a stack of four isotensoids, for perturbations of in.
It is found that both structures are stable for global deformation modes, but unstable for local modes at su. Both structures are stable if an isotropic model is assumed. The second approach is used to investigate the stability of the isotensoid stack for large shape perturbations, taking into account contact between di. For this structure a distorted, stable configuration is found.